Nigeria. According to
countryaah, the country was shaken by continued acts of
violence during the year, many of which were attributed to
the extremist Muslim sect Boko Haram. In the northern city
of Kano, the movement carried out coordinated attacks on
January 20, killing over 180 people. The sect, whose name
roughly means "Western education is a sin", had previously
urged Christians to leave Northern Nigeria. The authorities
responded with mass arrests and raided the sect's detention.
Boko Haram was also accused of attacks on churches,
schools, police stations, army offices and newspaper
editorials. The movement also exempted hundreds of suspected
supporters in the storms of prisons. The group was also
blamed for attacks on Muslim leaders and mosques. in the
city of Maiduguri in the northeast. Twenty suspected sect
members were killed by military in the city, a stronghold
for Boko Haram. The sabotage of cellphone masters also
occurred, a revenge for the telecom companies allegedly
helping the authorities to trace sect members.
The violence also triggered revenge attacks, which in
June when six Muslim youths were killed by a mob in the city
of Jos in central Nigeria since two churches were attacked.
President Goodluck Jonathan toned down the threat from
Boko Haram during a visit to Germany in April. But
neighboring Chad President Idriss Déby warned that the
movement could threaten stability in the region.
The human rights group Human Rights Watch stated that by
September more than 815 people had been killed in attacks
attributed to Boko Haram. The figure was higher than during
the whole of 2010 and 2011.
The security forces were criticized by Amnesty
International for summary executions, assault and
imprisonment without trial in attempts to crush the
In June, the president dismissed his security adviser and
the defense minister. Jonathan said changes were necessary
as Boko Haram "changed his tactics daily".
There were information about informal conversations with
the sect, but in November, the president said that no talks
were held as it was impossible to negotiate with a
"faceless" group. In November, the army pledged a reward of
SEK 12 million for 19 of the movement's top executives.
In addition to the security situation, Jonathan's
government was also pressured by other problems. It was
forced to withdraw plans to abolish subsidies on fuel after
extensive protests and strikes broke out at the beginning of
the year. Suspected corruption with government fuel
subsidies also created headaches. A parliamentary report
stated the decline to $ 6.8 billion since 2009. President
June replaced the head of the Nigerian National Petroleum
Corporation state oil company and three other directors.
Despite Nigeria being Africa's leading oil exporter, the
country imports a large proportion of its refined oil
products. In July, a letter of intent was signed with
American Vulcan Petroleum to build six oil refineries. The
deal was worth $ 4.5 billion.
Thefts of oil and sabotage of pipelines continued,
causing production losses as well as environmental
degradation. In London, a trial was started in which 11,000
people from a affected area in the Niger Delta demanded
damages from the oil company Shell following previous oil
Severe floods - the worst in over 40 years - during the
July-October rainfall required more than 360 lives, while
two million people became homeless. Oil production in the
Niger Delta was also disrupted.
The president announced three days of national grief in
June after a domestic plan with 153 aboard crashed into a
suburb of Lagos, the country's economic capital. Everyone on
board died, as did at least ten on the ground. The airline
Dana Air resumed its flights in January 2013.