countryaah, the country's largest opposition party Kadima,
also the largest party in the Knesset parliament, joined the
Conservative government coalition under Benjamin Netanyahu
in May. With 94 of Knesset's 120 mandates, the government
became the most powerful the country has ever had. But
already in July, the Kadima government left after
disagreements over whether students at Orthodox Jewish
schools would be covered by the general military duty.
Another question for the government was the settlers.
Military and police on several occasions evicted settlers
from houses in Palestinian territory on the grounds that
they were erected without permission. The issue created
tension in the government, where a couple of parties on the
far right were represented, with the result that at the same
time the evictions, other settlements were legally declared.
Netanyahu announced a new election to the Knesset in
October 2013 after he failed to gather support in Parliament
for the tight budget. The protests against the government's
austerity policy that started in 2011 continued on a smaller
The area on the southern border of Israel was troubled.
Disputes broke out in November with Islamist Hamas and its
allies in the Gaza Strip. Israeli air defense The Iron Dome
was mobilized but three civilian Israelis were killed and at
least one missile from Gaza landed as far north as just
outside Tel Aviv. In Gaza, a large number of civilians,
including children, were killed by Israeli shelling.
Since the fall of the Egyptian regime under Hosni
Mubarak, militant groups had also been given greater leeway
in Sinai on the Egyptian side of the border. Several people,
both civilians and soldiers as well as militiamen, were
killed during the year. On August 5, 16 Egyptian border
guards were killed in an attack.
In October, Israel shot down an unmanned and unmanned
reconnaissance plan, a so-called drone, near a nuclear
reactor in the southern part of the country. The Shiite
Muslim Hizbullah movement in Lebanon is said to have sent up
the plane, which was manufactured in Iran.
In January, Knesset legislated that undocumented
immigrants could be detained indefinitely without trial.
Israelis who help the paperless could also be punished much
harder than before. The human rights organization Amnesty
International criticized the law. In the Negev Desert at the
border with Egypt, Israel built a refugee refuge with room
for 8,000 people. It happened that refugees from Eritrea,
Sudan and other countries in Africa got stuck at the border
and the UN Refugee Commission criticized Israel in September
for not allowing them to enter and seek asylum. At least
50,000 paperless immigrants were estimated to be in Israel.
Israeli targets abroad were subjected to several acts of
terrorism, the worst against a tourist bus in the city of
Burgas, Bulgaria, July 18, when five Israeli tourists were
killed and about 30 injured. Israel suspected that Iran or
its allies in Hizbullah were behind the attacks.
The conflict with Iran escalated and several Israeli
government officials threatened in the spring with an attack
on Iranian nuclear fission facilities.
Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Avigdor
Lieberman resigned in December after he was indicted for
trespassing against the chief. He gave up his parliamentary
immunity to stand trial.